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android aidl详解

2015年06月13日 Android ⁄ 共 8364字 ⁄ 字号 暂无评论

转载请注明出处:http://blog.csdn.net/ZhouLi_CSDN/article/details/46455071

介绍:

由于android不允许进程间访问彼此的内存空间,所以android提供了aidl来允许进程间访问。
注意:AIDL为多线程编程,因此实现aidl需要注意多线程问题。

实际过程中,aidl调用可能发生在不同的进程和线程中,一下几种情况:
* 从本地的进程调用,在调用它的线程中执行。(这种情况推荐使用binder而不是aidl)
* 远程过程调用,并且有多个线程同时调用,注意线程安全。
* 远程调用并不阻塞,发送调用方法后,立即返回。

定义AIDL接口

  1. 在src/目录下创建.aidl文件,同时给需要访问的客户端
  2. sdk工具会自动为你生成实现类,并且内部会有一个继承与Binder的Stub抽象类,你必须继承它,并实现接口。
  3. 实现一个service,覆盖onBind方法,返回Stub的实现。
  4. 你必须使用java编程语言定义接口,每一个.aidl文件只能定义一个接口,只能有接口定义。
  5. 支持的数据类型:
    • 基本数据类型
    • list和map,返回arraylist和hashmap。
  6. sdk工具会在 gen目录下生成对应的.aidl 名称的java文件。
    注意:

    • 保证多线程安全
    • 默认,远程调用是同步的,不要在主线程调用,可能导致应用无响应。
    • 没有Exceptions会返回给调用者。

使用举例:

在service中实现Stub类,并在onBind方法中返回实例。

public class RemoteService extends Service {
    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
    }

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        // Return the interface
        return mBinder;
    }

    private final IRemoteService.Stub mBinder = new IRemoteService.Stub() {
        public int getPid(){
            return Process.myPid();
        }
        public void basicTypes(int anInt, long aLong, boolean aBoolean,
            float aFloat, double aDouble, String aString) {
            // Does nothing
        }
    };
}

客户端接收binder方法:

IRemoteService mIRemoteService;
private ServiceConnection mConnection = new ServiceConnection() {
    // Called when the connection with the service is established
    public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName className, IBinder service) {
        // Following the example above for an AIDL interface,
        // this gets an instance of the IRemoteInterface, which we can use to call on the service
        mIRemoteService = IRemoteService.Stub.asInterface(service);
    }

    // Called when the connection with the service disconnects unexpectedly
    public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName className) {
        Log.e(TAG, "Service has unexpectedly disconnected");
        mIRemoteService = null;
    }
};

在进程间传递对象
1. 类实现parcelable
2. 创建.aidl文件声明类
例如:Rect.aidl

package android.graphics;

// Declare Rect so AIDL can find it and knows that it implements
// the parcelable protocol.
parcelable Rect;

Rect class

import android.os.Parcel;
import android.os.Parcelable;

public final class Rect implements Parcelable {
    public int left;
    public int top;
    public int right;
    public int bottom;

    public static final Parcelable.Creator<Rect> CREATOR = new
Parcelable.Creator<Rect>() {
        public Rect createFromParcel(Parcel in) {
            return new Rect(in);
        }

        public Rect[] newArray(int size) {
            return new Rect[size];
        }
    };

    public Rect() {
    }

    private Rect(Parcel in) {
        readFromParcel(in);
    }

    public void writeToParcel(Parcel out) {
        out.writeInt(left);
        out.writeInt(top);
        out.writeInt(right);
        out.writeInt(bottom);
    }

    public void readFromParcel(Parcel in) {
        left = in.readInt();
        top = in.readInt();
        right = in.readInt();
        bottom = in.readInt();
    }
}

调用aidl

  1. 在src/包含.aidl文件
  2. 声明一个IBinder接口
  3. 实现ServiceConnection
  4. 在onServiceConnected方法中YourInterfaceName.Stub.asInterface((IBinder)service)接收
  5. 调用方法注意 DeadObjectException异常,这是当连接异常时抛出的,仅此一个异常
  6. 断开连接 unbindService
  7. 可以参考一篇文章实例
    举例:
public static class Binding extends Activity {
    /** The primary interface we will be calling on the service. */
    IRemoteService mService = null;
    /** Another interface we use on the service. */
    ISecondary mSecondaryService = null;

    Button mKillButton;
    TextView mCallbackText;

    private boolean mIsBound;

    /**
     * Standard initialization of this activity.  Set up the UI, then wait
     * for the user to poke it before doing anything.
     */
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        setContentView(R.layout.remote_service_binding);

        // Watch for button clicks.
        Button button = (Button)findViewById(R.id.bind);
        button.setOnClickListener(mBindListener);
        button = (Button)findViewById(R.id.unbind);
        button.setOnClickListener(mUnbindListener);
        mKillButton = (Button)findViewById(R.id.kill);
        mKillButton.setOnClickListener(mKillListener);
        mKillButton.setEnabled(false);

        mCallbackText = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.callback);
        mCallbackText.setText("Not attached.");
    }

    /**
     * Class for interacting with the main interface of the service.
     */
    private ServiceConnection mConnection = new ServiceConnection() {
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName className,
                IBinder service) {
            // This is called when the connection with the service has been
            // established, giving us the service object we can use to
            // interact with the service.  We are communicating with our
            // service through an IDL interface, so get a client-side
            // representation of that from the raw service object.
            mService = IRemoteService.Stub.asInterface(service);
            mKillButton.setEnabled(true);
            mCallbackText.setText("Attached.");

            // We want to monitor the service for as long as we are
            // connected to it.
            try {
                mService.registerCallback(mCallback);
            } catch (RemoteException e) {
                // In this case the service has crashed before we could even
                // do anything with it; we can count on soon being
                // disconnected (and then reconnected if it can be restarted)
                // so there is no need to do anything here.
            }

            // As part of the sample, tell the user what happened.
            Toast.makeText(Binding.this, R.string.remote_service_connected,
                    Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }

        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName className) {
            // This is called when the connection with the service has been
            // unexpectedly disconnected -- that is, its process crashed.
            mService = null;
            mKillButton.setEnabled(false);
            mCallbackText.setText("Disconnected.");

            // As part of the sample, tell the user what happened.
            Toast.makeText(Binding.this, R.string.remote_service_disconnected,
                    Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }
    };

    /**
     * Class for interacting with the secondary interface of the service.
     */
    private ServiceConnection mSecondaryConnection = new ServiceConnection() {
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName className,
                IBinder service) {
            // Connecting to a secondary interface is the same as any
            // other interface.
            mSecondaryService = ISecondary.Stub.asInterface(service);
            mKillButton.setEnabled(true);
        }

        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName className) {
            mSecondaryService = null;
            mKillButton.setEnabled(false);
        }
    };

    private OnClickListener mBindListener = new OnClickListener() {
        public void onClick(View v) {
            // Establish a couple connections with the service, binding
            // by interface names.  This allows other applications to be
            // installed that replace the remote service by implementing
            // the same interface.
            bindService(new Intent(IRemoteService.class.getName()),
                    mConnection, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
            bindService(new Intent(ISecondary.class.getName()),
                    mSecondaryConnection, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
            mIsBound = true;
            mCallbackText.setText("Binding.");
        }
    };

    private OnClickListener mUnbindListener = new OnClickListener() {
        public void onClick(View v) {
            if (mIsBound) {
                // If we have received the service, and hence registered with
                // it, then now is the time to unregister.
                if (mService != null) {
                    try {
                        mService.unregisterCallback(mCallback);
                    } catch (RemoteException e) {
                        // There is nothing special we need to do if the service
                        // has crashed.
                    }
                }

                // Detach our existing connection.
                unbindService(mConnection);
                unbindService(mSecondaryConnection);
                mKillButton.setEnabled(false);
                mIsBound = false;
                mCallbackText.setText("Unbinding.");
            }
        }
    };

    private OnClickListener mKillListener = new OnClickListener() {
        public void onClick(View v) {
            // To kill the process hosting our service, we need to know its
            // PID.  Conveniently our service has a call that will return
            // to us that information.
            if (mSecondaryService != null) {
                try {
                    int pid = mSecondaryService.getPid();
                    // Note that, though this API allows us to request to
                    // kill any process based on its PID, the kernel will
                    // still impose standard restrictions on which PIDs you
                    // are actually able to kill.  Typically this means only
                    // the process running your application and any additional
                    // processes created by that app as shown here; packages
                    // sharing a common UID will also be able to kill each
                    // other's processes.
                    Process.killProcess(pid);
                    mCallbackText.setText("Killed service process.");
                } catch (RemoteException ex) {
                    // Recover gracefully from the process hosting the
                    // server dying.
                    // Just for purposes of the sample, put up a notification.
                    Toast.makeText(Binding.this,
                            R.string.remote_call_failed,
                            Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
                }
            }
        }
    };

    // ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Code showing how to deal with callbacks.
    // ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * This implementation is used to receive callbacks from the remote
     * service.
     */
    private IRemoteServiceCallback mCallback = new IRemoteServiceCallback.Stub() {
        /**
         * This is called by the remote service regularly to tell us about
         * new values.  Note that IPC calls are dispatched through a thread
         * pool running in each process, so the code executing here will
         * NOT be running in our main thread like most other things -- so,
         * to update the UI, we need to use a Handler to hop over there.
         */
        public void valueChanged(int value) {
            mHandler.sendMessage(mHandler.obtainMessage(BUMP_MSG, value, 0));
        }
    };

    private static final int BUMP_MSG = 1;

    private Handler mHandler = new Handler() {
        @Override public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
                case BUMP_MSG:
                    mCallbackText.setText("Received from service: " + msg.arg1);
                    break;
                default:
                    super.handleMessage(msg);
            }
        }

    };
}